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This report analyses the findings of an extensive research project conducted by Oxfam in Ethiopia. In the context of Ethiopia’s rising external debt, and the new decentralised system of regional governance, members of four communities, both rural and urban, were interviewed in depth about the problems that they encounter in trying to access basic health care, reproductive-health services, and primary education; front-line service providers were also interviewed. Representatives of central and regional government and international donors were consulted, and policy documents reviewed. The report is illustrated with four detailed case-studies, and ends with recommendations addressed to the government of Ethiopia, non-government organisations, and major donors and creditors, arguing that renewed efforts at all levels must be made to meet internationally agreed human-development targets by 2015.

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