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The current debate around Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in India is playing for high stakes. This paper reviews the main issues covered in the debate and considers whether the Government should take a proactive role in ensuring access to healthcare for all, or support the flawed status quo. The debate has polarised positions on a number of fundamental questions. How should healthcare be funded? What should be the role of public and private providers? How should the private sector be regulated?

This paper outlines responses to these choices and shows how any resolution could determine whether healthcare becomes a reality for all Indians, or whether a majority of citizens will continue to pay an unbearable price for poor quality services.

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