The escalation of violence in Gaza and Israel is leaving people in Gaza in urgent need of humanitarian support. Please donate now.

Available documents


It is now well known that handwashing with soap has a greater impact on morbidity from diarrhoeal disease than any other single intervention. Why then, do NGOs focus so many of their activities and so much more money on supplying clean water and sanitation facilities? Why are these recognised as core activities while handwashing is considered a bolt-on activity? And why do NGOs always include water quality and latrine use as important indicators of success in logframes and monitoring strategies but rarely include handwashing, even though it is known to be a better success indicator?

This paper seeks to answer these important questions.

Additional details


How to cite this resource

Citation styles vary so we recommend you check what is appropriate for your context.  You may choose to cite Oxfam resources as follows:

Author(s)/Editor(s). (Year of publication). Title and sub-title. Place of publication: name of publisher. DOI (where available). URL

Our FAQs page has some examples of this approach.

Related resources

Here are similar items you might be interested in.

Browse all resources