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Spatial inequality is closely linked to wider social inequality and lack of mobility or access to transport can turn spatial marginalization into deeper social exclusion. The case shows how accessible, affordable urban transport schemes run on clean energy can generate multiple co-benefits, simultaneously reducing poverty, social exclusion and carbon emissions. It also highlights the important role of local municipalities in driving, planning and financing equitable and sustainable city-wide transport systems. In the short term, public transport is vulnerable to health pandemics such as COVID-19 but in the medium and longer term can play a vital role in building a fair, inclusive and green recovery.

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