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Case studies demonstrate the breadth and richness in approaches to scaling up and lessons learned from them. A key lesson is that scaling up agroforestry innovations is far more complex than simply transferring information and planting material; it often entails building institutional capacity in the community for promoting and sustaining the innovation and adoption process. An overarching problem is the paucity of research on scaling up. Careful assessments of the relative costs and benefits and the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies can greatly strengthen the effectiveness of efforts to scale up.

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