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Child, early, and forced marriage (CEFM) is one of the most detrimental forms of VAWG and affects 650 million women and girls in the world today. The slow pace of change is largely the result of deeply entrenched cultural values, attitudes and practices that perpetuate gender-based violence and discrimination.

With determination to accelerate this progress, Oxfam introduced “Creating Spaces to Take Action on Violence Against Women and Girls” (Creating Spaces), a five-year project (2016-2021) to reduce VAWG and the prevalence of CEFM in six countries in South and South East Asia (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan and the Philippines).

This compendium report highlights cross-cutting themes and findings on the most detrimental social norms, and material and structural factors at different levels of society that drive VAWG and CEFM. It also provides emerging examples of community-driven approaches to target and transform social norms and to advocate for legislative change.

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