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This study aims to provide an evidence basis for the provision of budget support in fragile states. The study sits at the intersection of three main sets of issues: fragility, budget support, and accountability (with a particular focus on the role of, and space or, civil society in holding government to account). The study provides insights into the rationale, challenges and kinds of conditions applied to budget support to fragile states; the effects of budget support on spending and delivery of basic social and agricultural services, as well as on the experiences of parliaments and civil society/communities in the study countries with regards to the ability to hold governments and donors to account for public spending.

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