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Sixty-five years after independence, India continues to struggle to achieve food, water, livelihood and socio-cultural security for its peoples. Both official and independent assessments point to persistent poverty, shortages of food, water and energy, unemployment and underemployment, social discrimination, and other problems which hinder the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is growing evidence that the current path of development is ecologically unsustainable, and that inequality is increasing.

This paper looks critically at India’s progress towards MDG 7 and discusses a post-2015 framework that would combine sustainability and human well-being. It suggests goals, targets and tools to help measure progress. The paper outlines some of the major challenges that India would face in working towards such goals and the role of civil society, academics, politicians and others in pressing for a new framework.

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