The escalation of violence in Gaza and Israel is leaving people in Gaza in urgent need of humanitarian support. Please donate now.

Available documents

No available documents

Oxfam Policy & Practice provides free access to Gender & Development and Development in Practice journal articles.

Download from publisher


In developing areas of the world, where local people’s understanding of germ theory and water and sanitation problems is not complete, 3MTM PetrifilmTM can act as an important visual aid for development workers in order to educate people about water and sanitation topics. The present article gives an example of how 3MTM PetrifilmTM has been used to help establish a baseline understanding of water and sanitation problems in rural Mali, and motivated improved water and sanitation practices.

This article is hosted by our co-publisher Taylor & Francis.

Additional details




How to cite this resource

Citation styles vary so we recommend you check what is appropriate for your context.  You may choose to cite Oxfam resources as follows:

Author(s)/Editor(s). (Year of publication). Title and sub-title. Place of publication: name of publisher. DOI (where available). URL

Our FAQs page has some examples of this approach.

Related resources

Here are similar items you might be interested in.

Browse all resources