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It is now well accepted that despite source water being safe, water can be contaminated during transportation and storage and the hygienic handling of water during transport, storage and use is an important aspect of hygiene promotion in all WASH interventions

In an emergency, it may not always be possible to ensure that the source water is clean (within the existing budget or time constraints) and household treatment of water is an important response option. As with the introduction of any hardware, this will only succeed if the users are considered in the selection, operation and maintenance of the treatment option and intensive hygiene promotion will be required to encourage correct and consistent use.

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