This paper explores the hypothesis that Islamic religious values and beliefs are antithetical to women’s education in two cities in Pakistan: Lahore, generally believed to be a socially liberal city, and Peshawar, often regarded as the bastion of conservative values and norms. Leaders and members of selected religious organisations, and some members of women’s rights and development organisations, were interviewed to ascertain their views. While there is universal support for girls’ education, views on the purpose, content, and mode of delivery differ between men and women and also depend on respondents’ position on the liberal/conservative spectrum. Some of the policy implications of the findings are discussed.
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