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Women and men working in smallholder olive and grape sectors in Gaza face many difficulties in eking out a living, many as a result of a long blockade that restricts free movement of people and goods and access to land needed for agriculture, severely hampering any economic prospects. Climate change exacerbates the crisis, with rising temperatures and sea levels causing further shocks, stresses and uncertainty. This research assesses smallholder farmers’ capacity to absorb, adapt and transform their livelihoods in the face of these challenges – with a particular focus on women, who bear the brunt of climate change and inequality – and suggests a range of actions that should be taken to address the crisis. 






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