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This paper is a comparative study of institutional change and efforts to create networks and linkages in the science and technology (S&T) systems of Poland and Tanzania at a time of market-led economic reform. It argues that, in both countries, S&T has been hampered by linear approaches to technology transfer and that future efforts should focus on non-linear approaches involving multiple actors. Discussion focuses on a consideration of organisational goals and agendas, the resource base of different organisations, and fostering organisational capacities to learn, adapt, and change.

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