This article explores the interview narratives of six NGO directors working in Afghanistan regarding the holistic and multi-track nature of their NGO’s project work. Data analysis revealed that NGO leaders believed that effective NGO project work relies extensively on purposeful coordination with other NGOs, and is dependent on non-NGO actors such as the military, the UN, local government structures, and local organisations. However, working in proximity with international military forces posed special challenges for NGOs in Afghanistan. While validating the military’s security work, NGO leaders believed it necessary to assert their independence from security operations, and military reconstruction and development work.
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