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This contribution reviews ten case studies of complementary education programmes conducted by the USAID-funded Educational Quality Improvement Program 2. The state-non-state relationship in each case is explored to reveal the arrangements that permit non-state providers to extend the reach and improve the effectiveness of education, particularly for populations that are underserved by the state system. Non-state providers improve on the standard models of state schooling by changing the mix of inputs at the school level, altering the institutional incentives that govern how schools operate, and setting up political accountability relationships closer to the points of service delivery.

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