The escalation of violence in Gaza and Israel is leaving people in Gaza in urgent need of humanitarian support. Please donate now.

Available documents

No available documents

Oxfam Policy & Practice provides free access to Gender & Development and Development in Practice journal articles.

Download from publisher


In times of war, the poorest people in communities – usually women and children – are most affected. The 1979 civil war in Chad plunged many women into poverty, especially in urban areas. Yet at the same time the conflict smashed Chad’s patriarchal social order allowing women to move into traditionally male roles. Their contribution and value are now being recognised in the following spheres: keeping families and communities together; earning an income and trading; creating commercial and banking systems; and shifting from being consumers to producers.

This article is hosted by our co-publisher Taylor & Francis. For the full table of contents for this and previous issues of this journal, please visit the Gender and Development website.

Additional details






How to cite this resource

Citation styles vary so we recommend you check what is appropriate for your context.  You may choose to cite Oxfam resources as follows:

Author(s)/Editor(s). (Year of publication). Title and sub-title. Place of publication: name of publisher. DOI (where available). URL

Our FAQs page has some examples of this approach.

Related resources

Here are similar items you might be interested in.

Browse all resources