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Scaling up agroforestry adoption requires technical innovations that are adapted to the environment, demand driven, require low capital and labour inputs, and provide tangible benefits in a short time. The basic inputs, usually information and germplasm, need to be available. To reach out to millions of rural poor who require the products and services of agroforestry innovations, the scaling-up process has to be cost- and time efficient. The common project mode of scaling up is often too slow and expensive, and natural resource management issues need addressing on a large scale. Experiences from south-western Uganda suggest that local governments and organisations can be encouraged to initiate cost-effective, large-scale adoption. The recent decentralisation process in Uganda makes it feasible for farmer organisations to do this, while research and development organisations concentrate on their comparative advantages, which lie in developing innovations and monitoring.

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